Uffizi Gallery – Florence

Florence - Uffizi Gallery - South View
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The stunning Renaissance Galleria degli Uffizi (Uffizi Gallery) is one of the most famous and old museums in the world.

When the building was designed it was meant to house the Florentine magistrates’ offices, from here the world Uffizi that in Old Italian mean offices. To realize his project in 1560 Cosimo I de’ Medici hired Giorgio Vasari, one of the most celebrated artists and architects of the time. It took more than twenty years to complete the building, other two architects were involved: Alfonso Parigi and Bernardo Buontalenti.

The idea of Cosimo I was to use the building partly for the administrative offices of the city and partly to display a selection of the family art collections. When Francis I became Grand Duke of Tuscany he asked Buontalenti to build the stunning Tribuna degli Uffizi in order to showcase an even bigger amount of art pieces. The unique collection displayed in the Tribuna became one of the principal attractions of the Grand Tour, a very popular trip of Europe among the European Upper-class.

The Medici Family art collections never stop growing; the building was remodeled many times in order to accommodate the new pieces of art. Vasari wrote that artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo where spending time in the Uffizi for inspiration.

When, after centuries of dominion, the Medici Family extinguished their stunning collections were donated to the city of Florence; the Uffizi was probably one of the first modern museums created.

Since the 16th century it was possible to visit the Uffizi Gallery by request, by the end of the 18th century the museum was opened to the general public. The collection is so vast that it is not possible to display every single piece of art; in the recent past some of the art works were moved in other Florence’s museum in order to be more appropriately showcase.

Things to see

The incredible number of art pieces are displayed chronologically; visitor can get lost admiring unique masterpieces like Giotto and Cimabue paintings, Masaccio and Piero della Francesca works or the famous and breathtaking Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli!

It is also possible to book a visit to the Vasari Corridor that connected The Uffizi Gallery with Palazzo Vecchio and Palazzo Pitti. Long over a kilometer the Corridor is embellished by 17th and 18th century paintings. The views of Florence from its windows are simply spectacular!

Today the Uffizi Gallery is among the most famous attractions of Florence with almost two millions visitors every year.

Private Lungarno Walking Tour

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$32.27

tour duration

2 1/2 Hours

start time

10:00 AM

02:00 pm

Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, sun

meeting point

ognissanti square, more details at booking

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TOUR ITINERARY

Your private guide will meet you in Piazza Ognissanti for a two and a half hour walking tour of the gorgeous Lungarni!

The Lungarni were built during the second half of the 19th century when Florence became, only for five years, the capital city of the newly born Italian Reign.

Your guide will unveil in front of your eyes the beauty of this city right from its heart: the Arno River. Here the Romans decide to erect a city; the marble used to build the beautiful edifices designed by Michelangelo and Brunelleschi arrived into the city by water!

Your tour will start from the beautiful Piazza Ognissanti where you can admire the gorgeous 12th century Church of Ognissanti, with its artworks from artists like Domenico Ghirlandaio and Sandro Botticelli. Heading south you will soon reach the Arno River; pass by Ponte della Carraia and you will find yourself walking through the elegant Lungarno Corsini, one of the most sophisticated place in Florence. Once you will reach the St. Trinity Bridge you will cross the river and visit Borgo San Jacopo with its unique houses that overlook the Arno. Your next stop will be Ponte Vecchio the most famous and photographed bridge in Florence! Here you will be able to admire the unique Corridoio Vasariano built in order to connect Palazzo Vecchio to Palazzo Pitti. Cross the bridge and walk by the Uffizi Gallery and many other beautiful Palaces and Churches until you will reach Ponte delle Grazie. Pass on the left bank, the Oltrarno, your last stop will be the beautiful Terrazza di Villa Bardini from which you will enjoy a breath-taking view of this incredible city!

At the end of your guided tour continue to enjoy on your own this stunning and unique city! We suggest to visit the spectacular Boboli Garden: get lost in this inimitable park like generations of Medici Family members in the past!

TOUR INCLUSIONS

– Expert local guide at disposal ( 2 1/2 hour)

TOUR HIGHLIGHTS

– Piazza Ognissanti

– Ponte Della Carraia

– Lungarno Corsini

– St. Trinity Bridge

– Borgo San Jacopo

– Ponte Vecchio

– Corridoio Vasariano

– Uffizi Gallery

– Ponte delle Grazie

– Villa Bardini’s Terrace

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
– Confirmation will be received at time of booking

– Voucher and detailed operator information, including local emergency numbers will be received three weeks before the date of your tour.

– Adult pricing applies to all travelers.

Departure point:

Ognissanti Square

Duration:
2 1/2 hours

Return details:
Villa Bardini’s Terrace

Private Uffizi Gallery Tour

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From: $53.79

 

TOUR DURATION

3 Hours

START TIME

09:00 AM –

02:00 pm

TUe,Wed, Thu, fri, sat, Sun

MEETING POINT

Pick-up at your hotel, if central located, or in front of the Uffizi gallery’s entrance, more details at booking

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TOUR ITINERARY

Your private guide will meet you in front of the Uffizi Gallery’s entrance or at your hotel, if central located, for a three hours tour of the unique Galleria degli Uffizi, one of the most famous museums in the world!

Florence is the birthplace of the Renaissance and the Uffizi Gallery is a gorgeous example of the period. Your guide will unveil in front of your eyes the treasures house in this incredible museum; the Uffizi can count on a vast and stunning collection of art. The Medici Family spent centuries in order to be able to create such an exceptional collection; you will be able to travel back in time and enjoy many masterpieces dated between the 13th and the 18th centuries. You will retrace the steps of artists like Michelangelo or Leonardo da Vinci: it is known in fact that they used to spend time here in order to relax or look for inspiration.

Some highlights from the Uffizi collection include artworks of celebrated gothic painters like Giotto and Cimabue, early renaissance masterpieces by Masaccio, unique works from Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael. The largest hall of the museum is probably the most famous one: the Birth of Venus and the Allegory of Spring by Sandro Botticelli are displayed here.

At the end of your guided tour continue to enjoy on your own this stunning and unique city!

 

TOUR INCLUSIONS

– Expert local guide at disposal

– Tour of Uffizi Gallery with local guide (3 hours)

– Uffizi Gallery entrance fees and reservation (skip the line)

TOUR HIGHLIGHTS

– Visit of Uffizi Gallery

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
– Confirmation will be received at time of booking

– Voucher and detailed operator information, including local emergency numbers will be received three weeks before the date of your tour.

– Adult pricing applies to all travelers

Departure point:

Pick-up at your accommodation if central located or in front of Uffizi Gallery’s entrance, more detail at booking

Duration:
3 hours

Return details:
Uffizi Gallery exit

Private Florence Walking Tour

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From: $55.94

tour duration

3 Hours

start time

09:00 AM

Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun

meeting point

Accademia Gallery or your hotel if central located

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TOUR ITINERARY

Your guide will meet you in front of the Accademia Gallery or your hotel, if central located,  for a three hour walking tour of Florence. The city’s ancient centre will be the spectacular frame for this walking tour dedicated to Florence’s glorious past as well as its vibrant modern life. The slow pace will allow you to discover and enjoy the most important monuments of the birthplace of the Renaissance.

You will begin at the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, the famed Duomo whose dome built by Brunelleschi dominates the skyline. Nearby is the Baptistry of San Giovanni, renowned for its golden doors but especially the one nicknamed “Porta del Paradiso”, an exquisite beauty. As you continue the walking tour, you will see elegant palaces, fashionable shops and pass through a number of narrow but charming medieval streets. Piazza della Signoria, your next stop, has been the political complex of Florence since the 1300’s when Florence was considered the richest city in Europe. The L-shaped square is where you will find the Palazzo Vecchio, the Loggia dei Lanzi and, a few steps away, the Uffizi Gallery. Continue to Ponte Vecchio, an ancient bridge that spans the Arno River and is recognized the world over. This bridge attracts much curiosity not only for its unique and charming appearance but also for the fabulous jewelry shops that line both its sides. The tour will end at the Accademia Gallery of Fine Arts Museum where you will have the opportunity to admire the symbol and eternal masterpiece of Florence: Michelangelo’s David. The museum also houses several of Michelangelo’s other works and an impressive collection of pieces by other masters such as by Paolo Uccello, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Sandro Botticelli.

From here, you are free to explore the city on your own. We suggest relaxing in the nearby Botanical Gardens or, if you are feeling hungry, making your way back toward the Duomo of Firenze and trying one of the restaurants around the cathedral piazza.

TOUR INCLUSIONS

– Expert local guide at disposal

– Skip the line – reservation and entrance fees at Academia Gallery

– Visit of Academia of Fine Arts

– Visit of Duomo

– Visit of Piazza della Signoria

– Visit of Pontevecchio

TOUR HIGHLIGHTS

– Academia Gallery

– Michelangelo David

– Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore

– Baptistery

– Piazza Signoria

– Loggia dei Lanzi

– Fountain of Neptune

– Ponte Vecchio

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
– Confirmation will be received at time of booking

– Voucher and detailed operator information, including local emergency numbers will be received three weeks before the date of your tour.

– Adult pricing applies to all travelers

– The dress code for men and women is strictly enforced in churchs and museums. No shorts, bare shoulders or miniskirts. You may risk refused entry if you fail to comply with these dress requirements.

Departure point:
Academia Gallery or your hotel if central located

Duration:
3 hours

Return details:
Concludes at Ponte Vecchio

Vatican Museums

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The Vatican Museums are located inside the Vatican City State. The entrance is situated on the northern part of Saint Peter’s square.  The Vatican Museums are composed of several smaller museums such as the Classical Antiquities Museum, the Gregorian Etruscan Museum, the Sistine Chapel, the Pinacoteca, the Ethnological Museum and Raphael’s Rooms, just to name the most famous.

The complex of the Vatican Museums owns a very rich collection of artefacts, sculptures, frescoes, mosaics from antique to modern times and originating from all over the world. Popes started to collect objects from ancient Egypt, ancient Rome and the Etruscan civilization, as well as from the first churches and basilicas ever built; they pursue this task to this day.

Excursions from the Vatican Museums

Two of the museums in the complex are considered wonders from the Renaissance period: the Sistine Chapel with its vault painted by Michelangelo, and Raphael’s Rooms. Pope Julius II was the first pope to collect, gather and display to the public sculptures and artefact from Ancient History but it was under Pope Clement XII that the two museums opened.

Pope Julius II chose the painter Raphael to decorate the four rooms of his apartment. Raphael started to paint in 1508 but the decorations were finished 16 years later by his students following the artist’s death in 1520. The four rooms are the following: the Room of Constantine, the Room of Heliodorus, the Room of the Segnatura, and the Room of the Fire in the Borgo. The first room was designed for receptions and official ceremony, and was decorated by Raphael’s students following his original drawings. The room of Heliodorus was used for the Pope’s private audiences while the room of the Segnatura was used as a library and private offices. This latter room contains Raphael’s most famous frescoes and it is considered a masterpiece marking the beginning of the High Renaissance. The room of the Fire in Borgo was used by Pope Leo X as a dining room. For this last room, Raphael painted the walls while the ceilings were painted by his teacher Pietro Vannuci.

The last museum to be opened was the Historical Museum in 1973. Today, the Vatican Museums welcome four million visitors each year.

Private Vatican Museums & St.Peter’s Basilica

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From: $72.08

TOUR DURATION

4 Hours

START TIME

09:00 AM & 02:00 PM

Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat

MEETING POINT

Vatican MuseumS entrance, more details at booking

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TOUR ITINERARY

Meet your private guide at the designated meeting point just outside the Vatican Museums. From there, your half day private tour of the Vatican will begin in the galleries of the Vatican Museums, home to the most celebrated art collection in Europe.

 

This collection includes artifacts, sculptures, frescoes and mosaics from antique to modern times that originate from all over the world. Throughout the centuries, Popes started to collect objects from ancient Egypt, ancient Rome and the Etruscan civilization, as well as from the first churches and basilicas ever built –a task which they pursue to this day. Some highlights from the Vatican collection include artworks by Giotto, Raphael, Da Vinci, Caravaggio, Titian and Bellini. The tour will take you throughout the various rooms and hallways that compose the Vatican Museums until you eventually arrive in the last room: the spectacular Sistine Chapel, extreme expression of Michelangelo’s genius.

 

Last but not least, you will visit the largest sanctuary of Christianity, St. Peter’s Basilica, where proportions seem to have been forgotten in an amazing triumph of marble, bronze and mosaic works. Many artists and architects worked on this massive undertaking, resulting in the fantastic artistic and architectural wonder in front of you now.

 

End the tour in St. Peter’s Square, as your guide points out Bernini’s ingenious use of optical illusion.

TOUR INCLUSIONS

– Expert local guide at disposal

– Reservation and entrance fee at Vatican Museums

TOUR HIGHLIGHTS

– Tapestry Gallery

– Gallery of Maps

– Raphael romms

– Sistine Chapel

– St Peter’s Basilica

– St Peter’s Square

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
– Confirmation will be received at time of booking

– Voucher and detailed operator information, including local emergency numbers will be received three weeks before the date of your tour.

– Adult pricing applies to all travelers

– Backpacks, umbrellas and tripods must be left inside a cloakroom on entering Vatican Museum.
The tour ends in St Peter’s Square that is at 15 minutes walking from the entrance and cloackroom. We recommend that backpacks tripods and umbrellas are not taken on this tour.

– The dress code for men and women is strictly enforced at St. Peter’s Basilica. No shorts, bare shoulders or miniskirts.

Departure point:

Vatican Museums entrance

Duration:
4 hours

Return details:
St. Peter’s Square

 

Private Colosseum and Roman Forum Tour

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From: $58.09

tour duration

3 Hours

start time

09:00 AM & 02:00 PM

Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun

meeting point

Colosseum, more details at booking

Tour
Itinerary
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TOUR ITINERARY

Meet your private guide at the designated area just outside the Colosseum, site of the legendary battles between gladiators. Stepping inside, you will be transported back to a time where the Roman Empire was one of the most powerful empires in the world; looking across the amphitheatre, it is almost possible to hear thousands of spectators cheering for the games once held. The tour carries on to the Roman Forum where you will explore the ruins of this ancient political, religious and commercial center. Take your time climbing up to Palatine Hill, the legendary birthplace of Rome; the top of the hill offers a splendid view of the Eternal City and the nearby Circus Maximus. The tour will end at the Capitoline Hill, where the holiest of Roman temples once stood: the Temple to Jupiter and the temple dedicated to the Capitoline Triad: Jupiter, Juno and their daughter Minerva.

The tour will end near Piazza Venezia, after which you will be free to explore the area. We suggest strolling up Via Del Corso, which offers numerous shops and amazing shopping opportunities. Alternatively, you could walk alongside the Tiber River located just a few minutes away.

TOUR INCLUSIONS

– Expert local guide at disposal (3 hours)

– Skip the line – reservation and entrance fees at Colosseum

– Roman Forum entrance fees

– From 5 people headsets to hear your guide clearly

 

TOUR HIGHLIGHTS

– Colosseum

– Arch of Constantine

– Roman Forum

– Palatine Hill

– Capitoline Hill

– Piazza Venezia

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
– Confirmation will be received at time of booking

– Voucher and detailed operator information, including local emergency numbers will be received three weeks before the date of your tour.

– Adult pricing applies to all travelers

– Due to uneven surfaces, this tour is not recommended for those with walking disabilities or using a wheelchair

– There are no cloakrooms at the Colosseum, please note that large backpacks, large bags and suitcases are not permitted in the Colosseum and Roman Forum. Only very small bags are allowed. We recommend that backpacks, large bags and suitcases are not taken on this tour.

Departure point
Colosseum

Duration
3 hours

Return details
Piazza Venezia

Michelangelo’s David

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Florence - David Michelangelo  -  frontal view

Possibly one of the most renowned sculptures from the Italian Renaissance is Michelangelo's David, a marble masterpiece created in the early 16th century. Over 5 meters tall, the idealized nude figure of the Biblical hero David towers over visitors from its pedestal within the Accademia Gallery, in Florence.

Made of smooth white marble imported from Carrara –a feat at the time, considering the size and weight of the block, and the distance between Carrara and Florence– the David was only one of a series of statues of biblical figures that would have been installed on the roof of the Duomo di Firenze.

Things to see

Originally commissioned by the art guild of the cathedral in question, the guild quickly realized that the sculpture’s size was too great to actually raise it to the roof. Instead, it was placed in the Piazza della Signoria, directly in front of Palazzo Vecchio, as a political symbol. In 1873, the original statue had to be moved from the Piazza to its current home in the Accademia Gallery in order to preserve it from further damage (both human and natural); the replica that took its place in front of the Palazzo Vecchio was not erected until 1910.

Today, the sculpture of David is one of the most famous silhouettes in the world, with replicas of all sizes and materials populating all sorts of locales, from the Victoria and Albert Museum in London to casinos, hotels, resorts and sometimes even people’s homes.

Academia Gallery

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Founded in 1562 by Cosimo I de’Medici, with the help of artist and architect Giorgio Vasari, the Accademia di Belle Arti was the first institution of its kind. The Accademia Gallery, located in the same complex, was later founded in 1784 by Pietro Leopoldo, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Home to an impressive art collection by various Italian masters, its most famous piece by far is Michelangelo's David. Created in the early 16th century, this sculpture is a marble masterpiece that stands over five meters tall, towering above visitors from its pedestal. Originally meant as one of a series of biblical figures to decorate the roof of the Duomo di Firenze, it was deemed too heavy by the time it was completed and was instead installed in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, in the Piazza della Signoria, in 1504. The David was not moved to its current place in the Accademia Gallery until 1873 to preserve it from both human and weather damage. The replica that now takes its place in the Piazza was added in 1910.

Things to see

Some of Michelangelo’s unfinished sculptures, sketches and lesser known art can also be found in the gallery. Other works housed by the Academia Gallery include Florentine paintings by artists such as Paolo Uccello, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Sandro Botticelli; several Florentine Gothic paintings; and even Giambologna’s original full-scale plaster for “The Rape of the Sabine Women” (one of the sculptures displayed in the Loggia dei Lanzi).

Piazza della Signoria

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Located in front of Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Piazza della Signoria is a square with a long and rich history, originating as far back as the Roman period when the city was called Florentia. This L-shaped plaza boasts a large collection of sculptures and monuments such as the Fountain of Neptune, the statues of Hercules and Cacus, Cosimo I de' Medici's statue, and of course, a copy of Michelangelo's David (the original statue is kept in the Accademia Gallery of Fine Arts).

Palazzo Vecchio, originally called Palazzo della Signoria and therefore the originator of the plaza’s name, serves today as a museum and as the town hall of Florence. This impressive Romanesque fortress was built in the early 14th century to both protect the city magistrates and celebrate Florence’s power and importance. Its tower, Torre di Arnolfo, was a preexisting structure which was incorporated into the Palazzo’s construction, hence why the tower looks somewhat misplaced.

Things to see

On one of the corners of Piazza della Signoria is the Loggia dei Lanzi, an open air gallery with wide arches built in the late 14th century. Within it are examples of antique and Renaissance artworks such as Benvenuto Cellini’s Perseus, Giambologna’s Rape of the Sabine Women, and the Medici Lions.

Right nearby is the Uffizi Gallery, one of the oldest and most famous museums in Italy, boasting a beautiful architecture and an impressive collection of various artworks. Built in the mid 16th century by the architect Giorgio Vassari to host the offices of the city’s magistrates, hence the name Uffizi, it was both an archive and a private gallery. It amassed an incredible wealth of art over the years and following the fall of the Medici family, the building was opened as a public museum in the mid 18th century.

A short walk from the Piazza della Signoria is Ponte Vecchio, a medieval stone bridge that spans the Arno River. This bridge is famous around the world for the shops build atop of it, most of which are still open today, though the tenants have changed from butchers and fishmongers to jewelers and souvenir sellers.

St. Peter’s Basilica

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St Peter’s Basilica takes its name from the martyr Saint Peter, who was killed in 64 A.D. during the time when Nero was persecuting Christians.

The original Saint Peter’s Basilica was built by the Emperor Constantin, the first Christian Emperor, in memory of the martyr. The basilica became a symbol of the Christian religion as the official religion in the Roman Empire. The construction started in 324 A.D. and integrated Saint Peter’s grave; the basilica was then consecrated in 329.

By the end of the 15th century, the Saint Peter’s Basilica had fallen to disrepair. In 1503, the architect Bramante was asked to renovate it by Pope Julius II and construction began in 1506. Bramante decided to renovate the basilica following the form of a Greek cross covered by a dome however he died a few years after the renovations had begun. Michelangelo continued the renovation project after Bramante’s death and transformed the dome, taking part in its construction until his own death in 1564. The dome was eventually finished by Giacomo Della Porta in 1590.

Things to see

Many artists and architects worked on this massive undertaking. During the 17th century, Carlo Maderno was inspired by Michelangelo’s plans and built the façade of the Basilica. This façade is 115 meters long and 48 meters high, the capitals of its many columns decorated according to the Corinthian style. The balcony situated above main door is where the pope usually pronounces his blessings. It was the sculptor Bernini who finally finished Saint Peter’s Basilica in 1666.

Nowadays, with its 190 meters in length, the Saint Peter’s Basilica is able to welcome 20 000 people. It is possible to take the stairs to the summit of the dome, which offers a breathtaking view of Saint Peter’s square below and Rome all around.

Sistine Chapel

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The Sistine Chapel is the most famous chapel of the Apostolic Palace. The Sistine Chapel belongs to the Vatican Museums and since it is considered as one of the museums of the complex, it is possible to visit its beauty.

The Sistine Chapel takes its name from the Pope Sixtus IV who ordered the renovation of the old chapel Cannella Magna between 1477 and 1480, however the chapel is most famous for the stunning Renaissance frescoes covering its walls and ceilings. Pope Julius II ordered the decoration of the ceiling to be done by Michelangelo, who painted 1100 square meters between 1508 and 1512.

Things to see

For many, this masterpiece is considered to be one of the best works ever realized by Michelangelo, particularly The Last Judgment located just behind the altar. This huge fresco was realized between 1536 and 1541. In the middle of the masterpiece, we can see Jesus Christ in a light halo; he is surrounded by Mary and several Saints expecting his final decision.

Once the fresco was finished, a huge scandal broke out because too many figures were judged obscene as they were painted naked. In 1564, the Congregation of the Council of Trent decided these figures should be covered and this task was given to the painter Daniele de Volterra. He had to paint draperies which would cover the private parts of the different characters. This earned the artist the nickname of “Braghettone”, which means “breeches maker”. Michelangelo was not the only artist who worked on the chapel; Botticelli, Domenico and Perugino all contributed several frescoes depicting the lives of Moses and Jesus Christ.

Since Pope Sixtus IV, the Sistine Chapel has been used for religious activities and papal meetings. Nowadays, the Sistine Chapel is open to the public as well as the place where the pope is elected.

St. Peter in Chains

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The Basilica Saint Peter in Chains (San Pietro in Vincoli) is located in Rome on the Esquiline Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome. It was built in 430 A.D. under Empress Eudoxia’s orders, who was the wife of Emperor Valentinian III. The goal of building such a basilica was to protect and keep Saint Peter’s chains safe. According to the legend, when Pope Leo I wanted to take the chains to compare them to those in the Mamertime prison, the two chains miraculously fused together and it became impossible to separate one from the other. A convent had also been built next to the basilica but after the Italian Unification it was given to the Sapienza University.

Things to see

The basilica has undergone several renovations since its completion but its current aspect is due to the renovations made by the Pope Julius I in 1503. What made the basilica famous however is the tomb of Pope Julius II. Pope Julius died on February 21st 1513 but his tomb was not finished until a century later. The large structure was made by Michelangelo and is considered as one of the artist’s masterpieces. The initial plan was to build a three-level structure with 40 statues inside of Saint Peter’s Basilica but to Michelangelo’s dismay, the Pope abandoned the project. Michelangelo had many other projects at the time and his contract changed so he never had the chance to complete the full project.

The central statue represents Moses, his fingers stroking his beard as he holds the Tablets of God’s Law under his right arm. He is depicted with horns, which is the traditional representation of people who have been touched by God. The statues either side of Moses, which represent Leah and Rachel, have also been made by Michelangelo while the other statues were realized by his students.